FAI Hang Gliding and Paragliding Commission (CIVL)

Incidents Types

This incidents types list is a synthesis of syntheses of several national overall practice incidents databases, running over several decades. Some sources have been lost, however the synthesis remains. Sorting the categories and especially the solution proposals are subjective (R. Caux). The list is of course open. Fly safe!




lack of sleeping, tiredness, jetlag
bad physical shape
alcohol, cannabis
need to pee
visual flaw (midair path)
white dots on retina
wounds on ground
scubadiving less than 12h before flight
fly down, oxygen set
drink, camelback
weather check, gloves, cothes
sunglasses, sunscreen, clothes, drink
give up
give up
give up
learn technique
red tape, FLARM
good sunglasses
(fitness) training
give up
lack of experience
start of season
fear, carelessness, complacency
personal worries, feeling "beside"
nervous, anger, "testosterone"
distraction (camcorder...), speeding up
forgetting to hook in
forgetting legloops
run stop in tandem launch
student without guidance
risk taking with weather, aerology
unavailability, overload, panic
learn human factor
learn human factor
give up
1. hook in 2. put on harness
close legloops 1st
improve pedagogy
improve pedagogy
learn human factor
tuned equipment, simplified pedagogy, training
impossible/difficult direct connection
forgetting to hook in
forgetting legloops, waist strap

forgetting chest strap
impossible/difficult stand up
impossible/difficult lying
zipper failure
main suspension rope break
tilt cord break
main riser break
backplate break, separation
forgotten hook-in
impossible wanted reserve opening

unwanted reserve opening
separation on reserve opening
legs injuries
spine injuries
front opening harness?
direct connection & automatic backup
Fourment legloops-chest strap link, upper zipper closing from bottom?
external chest strap
proper rail length, tuned legloops
centered rail, tuned riser-footplate cord
zipper on velcro sandwich
riser sliding on metal rod
removable tilt cord, properly routed
riser properly sewn & linked to safety frame
freefall tested plate linked to safety frame
1. let go 2. turn back onto slope
direct pod handle reached by both hands, 2 reserves
faired & fitted pod handle
bridle connected to harness safety frame
ballast suited to pilot
deployable airbag
face wounds by glasses
loosing helmet
"neck breaker"
brain rotational wounds
snagging cord on launch or glider

difficult reserve opening
pilot chute break
difficult pod opening
pod opened before throwing
reserve burst in terminal velocity opening
injuries upon landing under reserve
lockout on tow

drogue chute line break, torsion
interference drogue chute-keel
glasses with round rim
tested geometry, strong chin strap
minimal fairing behind helmet
MIPS helmet technology
tethers only by cow hitches or quick links, inner radio wire, no external strings
pilot chute on pod
freefall tested pilot chute
bungees regularly changed (prevent hardening)
protected closing loop, lines stowed on pod
freefall tested sail
size suited to gross weight
harness pitch set & 1/3 VG, pull in upon control,"hands on bar" release, dual bridle, fin
proper bridle possibly on harness axis
short bridle

forgetting pin with top closing A-frame
A-frame top bolt fatigue failure
weak A-frame top bolt through keel
cable folding base bar, fatigue
base bar break
torn cast fittings upon downtube bend/break
side wires fatigue break

forgetting haulback swan neck pin
folded leading edge mylar inserts
corrosion hidden by painting
forgetting/loosing nose cone
forgetting to close sprogs/keel zippers
hang loop
snagging VG cord
rectangular carbon spars break by complex forces
keel break
weak push-out upon landing
tiring, loss of interest

rigids control wires/spoilers/flaps disconnected in flight
rigids stabiliser lost in flight
rigids D-tubes delamination

base closing A-frame
right quality/size
short bolt in craddle under keel
articulated folding base bar
base bar inner backup wire
milled fittings

Cheney bottom fittings, right sized wires, eye swage terminals?
ring/shackle haulback, backup
inserts adjusted in leading edge pockets
anodised aluminium tubes
nose cone binding by cord or return velcro
"remove before flight" tags?
easy harness clip-in to dingle dangle/kingpost
stowing bungee on downtube base
wound spars

keel inner backup wire
A-frame top behind main riser
advertised glider tuning procedure: VG loose 1. symmetry 2. trim, VG tight 3. symmetry 4. pitch
pin secured wires/spoilers/flaps

pin secured stabiliser, reinforced craddle
control during preflight check
protruding nail on ramp
pitch change on slope change

low pitch on cart, tug lifts off 1st
high pitch on cart, stall
tumble out of cart
dragging cart on launch
nose AoA velcro limiter
steep launch on winch tow, stall upon line break
weak link break on launch
face injuries on line break
snagging tow line

impossible release upon lock out
midair with winch tow line
obstacles on landing
unavoidable crash upon landing
injuries upon jumping in water
drowning upon water landing
start run less than 1m before slope change (except cliff without wind)
tunable keel support, 20° (rigids 10°)
pitch angle: base bar ~ flight position
push while rolling & hold hoses
base bar cradles for all bars
glider/harness dual bridle
restricted tension below 50m, operator's training

stronger weak links, regularly replaced
simple, light & compact release
base bar central part clear of instruments, sheathed line
no cord loops imitating metal rings
winch towing activity on air maps
cut fences, trees
let glider absorb energy, wrap around 1 downtube
wait touching water before opening buckles
1. exit to trailing edge 2. open harness

launch with low AoA, glider overtaking
launch with high AoA, slow lift off, stall
loss of control on cart
blown launch, lockout on tow
hitting the ridge
unwanted reserve opening
drogue chute thrown over base bar/snagged on wheel/skid
spin close to ground
loss of control close to ground
poor approach, low turn
gradient, lee of obstacles
obstacles on landing
poor landing

launch AoA 20° (rigids 10°)
progressive acceleration, let fly
specific reversed control on cart
wings level, active control
crabb toward the valley
learn rules, continuous 360° watch, anticipate
equipment preparation
sprogs/twist tuned, VG loose in turbulence
throw at trim speed, right away

wings level, VG loose/flaps on for final
transition to low half of downtubes before final
long straight final
jugde & anticipate
anticipate, watch free zone
"listen" to trim
overcrowded launch
overcrowded start gate

lost pilots
hazardous task line/final glide

overcrowded landing
low stress setup/launch system (priority set up)
adapt lapse beween launch opening and 1st start, ex. 1 to 2h
continuous 360° watch, FLARM
mobile phone on, live tracker, SPOT
flight corridor over landable & in aerologically sane zones
daily turn direction for landing

mental training: visualise problems & emergency procedures
aware of consequences (aviation's hardest = ground)
aware of own (changing) limits: adrenalin, visual flaws, no cheating
fit & awake
ability to renounce: maturity
use logic more than lists learned by heart
simplify procedures to lower work load
anticipate worsening situation, have an alternate
rely on anticipation more than luck
safety scale (green: fly, yellow: watch ground, red: land)
anticipate human mistake, humbleness, listen to critics
step in when hazard or incompetence
declare incidents for common knowledge
putting stress on little mistakes (almost accident)